Anti-Hinduism

Posted on August 5, 2010

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Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception or religious intolerance against the practice and practitioners of Hinduism. Anti-Hindu sentiments have been expressed by Muslims in Pakistan, Bangladesh, leading to significant persecution of Hindus in those regions, such as the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities by Pakistan, and the recent demolition of Hindu temples in Malaysia.[1]

There are also allegations of Anti-Hinduism voiced by members of the Hindu diaspora in the West against their host societies, notably in the United States, where these form part of the so-called “culture wars“, with cases such as the California textbook controversy over Hindu history.

Stereotypes used by Anti-Hindus

Individuals in the Indian diaspora have begun to protest that Western scholars “distort their religion and perpetuate negative stereotypes”.[2] Historically, such stereotypes were promulgated during the British Raj by several Indophobes in South Asia as a means to aggrandize sectarian divisions in Indian society, part of the divide and rule strategy employed by the British. Such allegations have seen a rise with the Hindu right using them for politics.[2]

The Indian Caste System, a social stratification system in South Asia which has been criticized for its discriminatory problems, is uniquely blamed on Hindus and the religion of Hinduism. This is a common stereotype, as adherents of other religions such as Islam and Christianity have kept the practice of caste segregation in India (for details, see Caste system among South Asian Muslims). Some in India regard it as a social issue, rather than a religious one. Several organizations in India and abroad have been criticized by Hindu advocacy groups for these types of attacks.

The devotion to bovine animals (regarded as holy in Hinduism) is also used as a pretext to mock the Hindu people by many in the west. In addition, the Hindu tradition of cremating their dead is used to mock the people.

Anti-Hindu attacks often accuse Hindus of being “Blasphemers” for committing “idolatry” and “polytheism” (Hinduism is more accurately described as monistic or henotheistic than polytheistic depending on the sect or school of belief involved ). Some Anti-Hindus insist on an interpretation of Hinduism, relating to ancient polytheistic religions as opposed to one that relates to enlightenment or moksha. This accusation is prevalent among adherents of monotheistic religions like Islam and Christianity. Many Christian missionaries, particularly those of Fundamentalist Christianity, denigrate Hindu deities as “evil” or “demonic”. Advocacy groups in the west, such as the Hindu American Foundation and the Simon Wiesenthal Center have spoken against anti-Hindu bigotry and prejudice.

Historical instances of anti-Hindu views

During Islamic Rule in the Indian Subcontinent

Parts of India have historically been subject to Islamic rulers from the period of Muhammad bin Qasim to the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, as well as smaller kingdoms like the Bahmani Sultanate and Tipu Sultans kingdom of Mysore. In almost all of those regimes, Hindus have had an inherently inferior status to the Muslim overlords. Islamic law demands that when under Muslim rule “polytheists” or “infidels” be treated as dhimmis (from the Arab term) ahl-al-dhimma.[3]

Barrani

Under the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the Muslim cleric Ziauddin Barrani wrote several works, such as the Fatwa-i-Jahandari, which gave him a reputation as as a “fanatical protagonist of Islam[4] and wrote that there should be “an all-out struggle against Hinduism”, advocating a militant and dogmatic religiosity.[5] He developed a system of religious elitism to that effect.[5]

Tipu Sultan

The attitude of Muslim Ruler Tipu Sultan towards Hindus has been the subject of acrimonious debate in India in recent times with historians questioning the generally held belief that Tipu Sultan had a secular outlook.[6]

In the first part of his reign in particular he appears to have been notably more aggressive and religiously doctrinaire than his father, Haidar Ali.[7] Malayalam writer V.V.K. Valath has claimed[8] that Tippu Sultan was a religious persecutor of Hindus. In 1780 CE he declared himself to be the Padishah or Emperor of Mysore, and struck coinage in his own name without reference to the reigning Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. H. D. Sharma writes that in his correspondence with other Islamic rulers such as Shah Zaman of Afghanistan, Tippu Sultan used this title and declared that he intended to establish an Islamic Empire in the entire country, along the lines of the Mughal Empire which was at its nadir during the period in question.[9] His alliance with the French was supposedly aimed at achieving this goal by driving his main rivals, the British, out of the subcontinent.

C. K. Kareem also notes that Tippu Sultan issued an edict for the destruction of Hindu temples in Kerala.[10]. The archaeological survey of India has listed three temples – throughout India – which were destroyed during the reign of Tipu Sultan. These were the Harihareshwar Temple at Harihar which was converted into a mosque, the Varahswami Temple in Seringapatam and the Odakaraya Temple in Hospet.[11]. The list is incomplete and has not concidered temples such as in Keladi, Ikkeri and Sagar

S.Chandrasekar, Travel writer & Photographer,2010, records from his family genealogy (Visanasola,Kuthsa gothra,Telugu Konaseema Dravidlu): “One of my anscestors, Someswara Iyer was mistakenly imprisoned by Tipu in 1789. He was a pure saivite and an innocent brahmin. He refused to eat or drink in prison due to shame and humiliation. Soon he drooned and fell unconscious. That night Lord appeared in the dream of Tipu and ordered him to release the poor brahmin. Tipu apoligised and repented for the sin committed. Someswaran was too fragile and couldn’t move. Tipu asked his court physician to smear battered curdrice paste throughout the body twice a day. His skin pores absorbed them. On the third day it was said that he regained energy to speak. Tipu granted few villages and an emerald shiva linga to Someswaran Iyer as a token of respect. The lands and lingam have vanished over the centuries. Henceforth Someswara Iyer was called Nawab Somayajulu (wife Subbulakshmi). They belonged to the Konaseema Telugu speaking kuthsa-gothra brahmin family of southindia Konaseema dravidlu, kuthsa gothram, Visanasola telugu brahmins ‎. Someswaran was the 8th descendent from Madhyarjunam Subbarao who was a minister at the court of King Sri Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara Empire c.1500AD (approx.)”

After such attrocities, Tipu’s view towards hinduism changed completely and the history recorded his seeking reverential advice from the then Sringeri pontiff Sri Sacchidananda Bharati III (1770–1814). The Sringeri Sarada Peetam has in its safe possession some 24 letters written by the Sultan. Tipu had donated many silver vessels and gold ornaments to Sri Ranganatha swamy at Seringaptnam which is at stone’s throw from his palace. He had a daily darshan of the temple gopura from his balcony.

Historian Hayavadana C. Rao wrote about Tippu in his encyclopaedic work on the History of Mysore. He asserted that Tippu’s “religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration”. He further asserts that the acts of Tippu that were constructive towards Hindus were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance.[12]

Whilst no scholar has denied that, in common with most rulers of his period, Tippu’s campaigns were often characterized by great brutality, some historians claim that this was not exclusively religiously motivated, and did not amount to a consistent anti-Hindu policy. Brittlebank, Hasan, Chetty, Habib and Saletare amongst others argue that stories of Tippu’s religious persecution of Hindus and Christians are largely derived from the work of early British authors such as Kirkpatrick[13] and Wilks,[14] whom they do not consider to be entirely reliable.[15] A. S. Chetty argues that Wilks’ account in particular cannot be trusted.[16]

Although the attitudes of Muslim ruler Tippu Sultan have been criticized as being anti-Hindu by Indian historians, left-wing historians note that he had an egalitarian attitude towards Hindus and was harsh towards them only when politically expedient [17]. Former IAS Officer, Praxy Fernandes has mentioned in his book that Tipu Sultan displayed reverence to the head of the Hindu Shringeri Mutt, by sending a silver palanquin and a pair of silver chauris to the Sarada Temple [11].

Irfan Habib and Mohibbul Hasan argue that these early British authors had a strong vested interest in presenting Tippu Sultan as a tyrant from whom the British had “liberated” Mysore.[18] This assessment is echoed by Brittlebank in her recent work[19] These claims not withstanding, one can see vandalized temples in Ikkeri to understand the fairness of arguments.

During Portuguese rule in Goa

During the Portuguese rule in Goa, thousands of Hindus were coerced into accepting Christianity by passing laws that made it difficult to practice their faith, harassing them under false pretences or petty complaints and giving favourable status to converts and mestiços in terms of laws and jobs [20]. It is alleged that during the Goa Inquisition, thousands of Goan Hindus were massacred by Portuguese rulers, starting in the year 1560. The inquisition was proposed by St. Francis Xavier[21]

During the British Raj

During the British rule of the Indian subcontinent, several evangelical Christian missionaries spread anti-Hindu propaganda as a means to convert Hindus to Christianity. Examples include missionaries like Abbe J.A. Dubois, who wrote “Once the devadasis’ temple duties are over, they open their cells of infamy, and frequently convert the temple itself into a stew. A religion more shameful or indecent has never existed amongst a civilized people” [22]

In Charles Grant‘s highly influential “Observations on the …Asiatic subjects of Great Britain” (1796),[23] Grant criticized the Orientalists for being too respectful to Indian culture and religion. His work tried to determine the Hindu’s “true place in the moral scale”, and he alleged that the Hindus are “a people exceedingly depraved”.

In the West

By the late 19th century, fear had already begun in North America over Chinese immigration supplying cheap labor to lay railroad tracks, mostly in California and elsewhere in the West Coast. In xenophobic jargon common in the day, ordinary workers, newspapers, and politicians uniformly opposed this “Yellow Peril“. The common cause to eradicate Asians from the workforce gave rise to the Asiatic Exclusion League. When the fledging Indian community of mostly Punjabi Sikhs settled in California, the xenophobia expanded to combat not only the East Asian Yellow Peril, but now the immigrants from British India, the Turban Tide, equally referred to as the Hindoo Invasion (sic).[24][25][26]

The rise of the Indian American community in the United States has brought about some isolated incidences of attacks on them, as has been the case with many minority groups in the United States. Attacks specific to Hindus in the United States stem from what is often referred to as the “racialization of religion” among Americans, a process that begins when certain phenotypical features associated with a group and attached to race in popular discourse become associated with a particular religion or religions.The racialization of Hinduism in American perception has led to perceiving Hindus as a separate group and contributes to prejudices against them.[27]

Pat Robertson

In addition, there have been anti-Hindu views that are specific to the religion of Hinduism as well as mistaken racial perceptions. Christian televangelists such as Pat Robertson in the United States has made remarks that are regarded as anti-Hindu, if not racist,[28] denouncing Hinduism as “demonic” and evoking similar canards against Hinduism. These remarks were widely condemned and rebutted by Indian Americans and many non-partisan advocacy groups.[29] Other Fundamentalist Christian evangelicals such as Albert Mohler have defended the anti-Hindu remarks and made disparaging statements about Hinduism as “satanic”, laced together with anti-Buddhist and Islamophobic rhetoric.[30]

Tony Brown

In 2001, an American talk show host Tony Brown, made several derogatory anti-Hindu remarks in his talk show on WLS 890 AM that began with the concern among American workers about the influx of software engineers from India. He evoked anti-Hindu canards such as exaggerating the importance of the Caste System in Hinduism, and made patent falsehoods about Human Rights in India. Protests by Indian-American community leaders led to the radio host publicly apologizing for his remarks against Hindus and Hinduism. In his apology, Brown said:

The statements I made were derived from either books or articles that I read. Still, I had not considered the possibility of bigots using the information to persecute the Hindu minority in this country.That does not excuse me from the pain that I have caused by not being more circumspect.[31]

After his apology, Brown also invited Swami Atmajnanananda of the Washington branch of the Ramakrishna Mission and an Indian journalist based in Chicago, J V Lakshmana Rao, to participate in the talk show. Atmajnanananda said one must draw a distinction between caste and casteism. He said:

The assumption that Hindus are inherently racists is dangerous.Caste does not play a role in one’s occupation any more. One should not use the pitfalls of the Indian culture to attack Hinduism.[31]

Refuting Brown’s statement that lower castes were being persecuted in India, Rao spoke of affirmative actions in favor of the lower castes by the Government of India.

Denver Post

On April 28, 2004, an article on the Denver Post, authored by thoracic and general surgeons and a commentator on National Public Radio in USA Pius Kamau, portrayed the entire Indian community and the Hindus with “bigoted views”. Widespread letter-writing and protests from the Indian American community, the Denver post responded by conveying the writer and editor’s apologies.[32]

On May 6 of that year, Denver Post also published a strong rebuttal to the original article By P.K. Vedanthan titled “Healing ethnic wounds”.[32]

Hindu American Foundation

The Hindu American Foundation, together with organizations like the American Jewish Committee, have worked to counter perceived biases against Hindus and Jews in college campuses like Stanford University. Both groups claim to have identified cases of academic hostility against both minorities.[33]

In 2005, The Hindu American Foundation protested against the defamation of Hinduism in an article in the San Francisco Chronicle alleging the false anti-Hindu canard of rape being a “just punishment for criminal behavior”. The author removed the statement following the protest.[34]

In the same year, HAF also protested against an anti-Hindu article published in the Los Angeles Times where the writer, Paul Watson also equates Hinduism with the worship of cows and snakes.[35]

US Congress

In July, 2007, The United States Senate conducted its morning prayer services with a Hindu prayer[36], a historical first. During the service, three disruptors, named Ante Nedlko Pavkovic, Katherine Lynn Pavkovic and Christian Renee Sugar, from the Fundamentalist Christian activist group Operation Save America[37] protested that the Hindu prayer was “an abomination“, and that they were “Christians and Patriots”. They were swiftly arrested and charged with disrupting Congress.[38][39].

The event generated a storm of protest from Fundamentalist Christian groups in the country, with the American Family Association posting lengthy anti-Hindu diatribes on their website.[40] Their representative attacked the proceedings as “gross idolatry” [37]

The chairman of the United States and India Political Action Committee, Sanjay Puri, has circulated a letter to the organization protesting the move as an act of bigotry. He writes:

It is our hope and goal that we can open up this dialogue because we were dismayed to see the communication made to your members that was blatantly offensive and factually erroneous. As a United States organization representing the Indian American community, which includes diverse groups from various religious backgrounds, we hope that you will make efforts to bring people together.[41]

Senate majority leader Harry Reid, who had invited Zed to conduct the service, responded to the protest by defending his actions. He said:

If people have any misunderstanding about Indians and Hindus,” Reid said, “all they have to do is think of Gandhi,” a man “who gave his life for peace. I think it speaks well of our country that someone representing the faith of about a billion people comes here and can speak in communication with our heavenly Father regarding peace.[37]

Barry W. Lynn, executive director of Americans United for Separation of Church and State, said the protest “shows the intolerance of many religious right activists. They say they want more religion in the public square, but it’s clear they mean only their religion.”[37]

In South Asia

Afghanistan

The Taliban regime in Afghanistan was known for its extremist attitudes and views on Islam, including their strict enforcement of Islamic sharia law in the society. The Taliban regime declared that Hindus would be required to wear badges in public identifying themselves as Hindus, ostensibly to “protect them”. This was part of the Taliban’s plan to segregate “un-Islamic” and “idolatrous” communities from Islamic ones.[42]

The decree was regarded as an anti-Hindu one by several lawmakers and congressmen in the United States, as well as by the Indian Government.[43] There were widespread protests against this decree in both India and the United States. In the United States, chairman of the Anti-Defamation League Abraham Foxman compared the decree to the practices of Nazi Germany, where Jews were required to wear labels identifying them as such.[44] In the United States, congressmen wore yellow badges on the floor of the Senate during the debate as a demonstration of their solidarity with the Hindu minority in Afghanistan.[43]

Pakistan

In Pakistan, anti-Hindu sentiments and beliefs are widely held among many sections of the population. There is a general stereotype against Hindus in Pakistan. Hindus are regarded as “miserly”.[45] Also, Hindus are often regarded as “Kaffirs” (lit. “unbelievers”) and blamed for “causing all the problems in Pakistan”.[46] Islamic fundamentalist groups operating within Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan have broadcasted or disseminated anti-Hindu propaganda among the masses,[47] referring to Hindus as “Hanood” and blaming them for “collaborating with the foreigners” against the people of the region.

The Muttahida Majlis-i-Amal (MMA), a coalition of Islamist political parties in Pakistan, calls for the increased Islamization of the government and society, specifically taking an anti-Hindu stance. The MMA leads the opposition in the national assembly, held a majority in the NWFP Provincial Assembly, and was part of the ruling coalition in Balochistan. However, some members of the MMA made efforts to eliminate their rhetoric against Hindus.[48]

The public school curriculum in Pakistan was Islamized during the 1980s.[49] The government of Pakistan claims to undertake a major revision to eliminate such teachings and to remove Islamic teaching from secular subjects.[48] The bias in Pakistani text books was also documented by Y. Rosser (2003). She wrote that

in the past few decades, social studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used as locations to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy makers have attempted to inculcate towards their Hindu neighbours”, and that as a result “in the minds of generations of Pakistanis, indoctrinated by the ‘Ideology of Pakistan’ are lodged fragments of hatred and suspicion.

(Rosser 2003)[50]

The bias in Pakistani textbooks was studied by Rubina Saigol, Pervez Hoodbhoy, K. K. Aziz, I. A. Rahman, Mubarak Ali, A. H. Nayyar, Ahmed Saleem, Y. Rosser and others.

A study by Nayyar & Salim (2003) that was conducted with 30 experts of Pakistan’s education system, found that the textbooks contain statements that seek to create hate against Hindus. There was also an emphasis on Jihad, Shahadat, wars and military heroes. The study reported that the textbooks also had a lot of gender-biased stereotypes. Some of the problems in Pakistani textbooks cited in the report were:

Insensitivity to the existing religious diversity of the nation”; “Incitement to militancy and violence, including encouragement of Jihad and Shahadat”; a “glorification of war and the use of force”; “Inaccuracies of fact and omissions that serve to substantially distort the nature and significance of actual events in our history”; “Perspectives that encourage prejudice, bigotry and discrimination towards fellow citizens, especially women and religious minorities, and other towards nations” and “Omission of concepts … that could encourage critical self awareness among students”. (Nayyar & Salim 2003).The Pakistani Curriculum document for classes K-V stated in 1995 that “at the completion of Class-V, the child should be able to “Understand Hindu-Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan.

[pg154]

A more recent textbook published in Pakistan titled “A Short History of Pakistan” edited by Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi has been heavily criticized by academic peer-reviewers for anti-Hindu biases and prejudices that are consistent with Pakistani nationalism, where Hindus are portrayed as “villains” and Muslims as “victims” living under the “disastrous Hindu rule” and “betraying the Muslims to the British”, characterizations that academic reviewers fond “disquieting” and having a “warped subjectivity”.[51][52][53]

Ameer Hamza, a leader of the banned terrorist group Lashkar-e-Toiba, wrote a highly derogatory book about Hinduism in 1999 called “Hindu Ki Haqeeqat” (“Reality of (a) Hindu”); he was not prosecuted by the Government.[54]

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, the Bangladesh National Party is regarded as an anti-Hindu party, and reportedly encourages anti-Hindu views and sentiments among the Muslim majority. Prominent political leaders frequently fall back on “Hindu bashing” in an attempt to appeal to extremist sentiment and to stir up communal passions.[55] In one of the most notorious utterances of a mainstream Bangladeshi figure, the then Prime Minister Khaleda Zia, while leader of the opposition in 1996, declared that the country was at risk of hearing “uludhhwani” (a Bengali Hindu custom involving women’s ululation) from mosques, replacing the azaan (Muslim call to prayer) (eg, see Agence-France Press report of 18 November 1996, “Bangladesh opposition leader accused of hurting religious sentiment”).

Even the supposedly secular Awami League is not immune from this kind of scare-mongering. The current prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, was alleged to have accused Bangladeshi Hindu leaders in New York of having divided loyalties with “one foot in India and one in Bangladesh”. Successive events such as this have contributed to a feeling of tremendous insecurity among the Hindu minority.[56]

The fundamentalists and right-wing parties such as the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jatiya Party often portray Hindus as being sympathetic to India, making accusations of dual loyalty and allegations of transferring economic resources to India, contributing to a widespread perception that Bangladeshi Hindus are disloyal to the state. Also, the right wing parties claim the Hindus to be backing the Awami League.[57]

As widely documented in international media, Bangladesh authorities have had to increase security to enable Bangladeshi Hindus to worship freely[58] following widespread attacks on places of worship and devotees.

India

Extremist fringes within the broader movement for Dalits, such as Dalit Voice have expressed anti-Hindu views and sentiments, demanding the eradication of Hindus and expressing support for various Islamist groups around the world.[59]

South Africa

South Africa is home to a small Hindu minority. In 2006, the son of an Islamic cleric named Ahmed Deedat, circulated a DVD that denounced South African Hindus. The elder Deedat, former head of the Arab funded “Islamic Propagation Centre International” (IPCI), had previously circulated an anti-Hindu video in the 80’s where he said that Indian Muslims were ‘fortunate’ that their Hindu forefathers ‘saw the light’ and converted to Islam when Muslim rulers dominated some areas of India. His video was widely criticized. While Hindus in South Africa have largely ignored the new anti-Hindu DVD circulated by Deedat Junior, he has been severely criticized by local Muslims, including other members of the IPCI. The IPCI said in a statement that Yusuf Deedat did not represent the organisation in any way. Deedat Junior, undeterred by the opposition from his own brethren, continues to circulate the material.He has placed advertisements in newspapers inviting anyone to collect a free copy from his residence to see for themselves “what the controversy is about”.[60]

Anti-Hindu crimes

Hate crime statistics against Hindus in North American countries are unavailable. However, it is believed that sporadic bouts of communal and institutional hatred against Hindus have occurred, though their frequency may have decreased in recent years. In the late 1980s a Jersey City street gang calling themselves the “Dotbusters” targeted, threatened and attacked South Asians, specifically Hindus.[61]

On July 20, 2006, The Hindu American Foundation represented Hindus as a part of a coalition of civil rights, educational and religious submitting comments to the Department of Justice on its implementation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act (HCSA). Enacted by Congress in 1990, the HCSA requires the Justice Department to acquire data on crimes which “manifest prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity” from law enforcement agencies across the country and to publish an annual report of its the findings.[62]

Recent anti-Hindu violence

There have been a number of more recent attacks on Hindu temples and Hindus by Muslim militants. Prominent among them are the 1998 Chamba massacre, the 2002 fidayeen attacks on Raghunath temple, the 2002 Akshardham Temple attack allegedly perpetrated by Islamic terrorist outfit Lashkar-e-Toiba[63], the 2006 Lahore temple demolition, and the 2006 Varanasi bombings (supposedly perpetrated by Lashkar-e-Toiba), resulting in many deaths and injuries.

Notes

  1. ^ Temple row – a dab of sensibility please
  2. ^ a b Braverman, Amy M. (2006). “The interpretation of gods”. University of Chicago Magazine. http://magazine.uchicago.edu/0412/features/index-print.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-01. ‘
  3. ^ Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006 [1]
  4. ^ Das, Arbind, Arthashastra of Kautilya and Fatwa-i-Jahandari of Ziauddin Barrani:an analysis, Pratibha Publications, Delhi 1996, ISBN 81-85268-45-2 pgs 138-139
  5. ^ a b Verma, V.P, Ancient and Medieval Indian Political Thought, Lakshmi Narasan Aggarwal Educational Publications, Agra 1986 pgs218-220
  6. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/2003/05/09/stories/2003050902820400.htm
  7. ^ Lewin Bowring Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan and the struggle with the Musalman powers of the south (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 1893
  8. ^ Valath, V. V. K. (1981) (in Malayalam). Keralathile Sthacharithrangal – Thrissur Jilla. Kerala Sahithya Academy. pp. 74–79.
  9. ^ Sharma, H.D (January 16, 1991). The Real Tipu. Rishi Publications, Varanasi.
  10. ^ Kareem, C.K (1973) [1973]. Kerala Under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan P187. Kerala History Association : distributors, Paico Pub. House. p. 322.
  11. ^ a b http://newstodaynet.com/guest/3110gu1.htm
  12. ^ Rao, Hayavadana C.. History of Mysore 1399-1799: Incorporating the latest Epigraphical, Literary and Historical Researches Vol. 3 pgs 1047-53. Bangalore Government Press.
  13. ^ W. Kirkpatrick Select Letters of Tippoo Sultan (London) 1811
  14. ^ M. Wilks Report on the Interior Administration, Resources and Expenditure of the Government of Mysore under the System prescribed by the Order of the Governor-General in Council dated 4 September 1799 (Bangalore) 1864 & Historical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysore Ed. M. Hammick (Mysore) 1930 2 Vols.
  15. ^ C.C. Davies “Review of The History of Tipu Sultan by Mohibbul Hasan” in The English Historical Review Vol.68 №.266 (Jan, 1953) pp144-5
  16. ^ A. Subbaraya Chetty “Tipu’s endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions” in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism p111
  17. ^ Kate Brittlebank Tipu Sultan’s Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu domain (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997
  18. ^ Irfan Habib “War and Peace. Tippu Sultan’s Account of the last Phase of the Second War with the English, 1783-4” State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 2001 p5; Mohibbul Hasan writes “The reasons why Tipu was reviled are not far to seek. Englishmen were prejudiced against him because they regarded him as their most formidable rival and an inveterate enemy, and because, unlike other Indian rulers, he refused to become a tributary of the English Company. Many of the atrocities of which he has been accused were allegedly fabricated either by persons embittered and angry on account of the defeats which they had sustained at his hands, or by the prisoners of war who had suffered punishments which they thought they did not deserve. He was also misrepresented by those who were anxious to justify the wars of aggression which the Company’s Government had waged against him. Moreover, his achievements were belittled and his character blackened in order that the people of Mysore might forget him and rally round the Raja, thus helping in the consolidation of the new regime” The History of Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 1971 p368
  19. ^ Brittlebank Tipu Sultan’s search for legitimacy p10-12. On p2 she writes “it is perhaps ironic that the aggressive Hinduism of some members of the Indian Community in the 1990s should draw upon an image of Tipu which, as we shall see, was initially constructed by the Subcontinent’s colonizers.”
  20. ^ Saraswati’s Children – Alan Machado Prabhu
  21. ^ Rao, R.P (1963). Portuguese Rule in Goa:1510-1961 P43. Asia Publishing House.
  22. ^ Hinduism Today | Sep 1993
  23. ^ Grant, Charles. (1796) Observations on the state of society among the Asiatic subjects of Great Britain, particularly with respect to morals; and on the means of improving it, written chiefly in the year 1792.
  24. ^ Chan Sucheng,Asian Americans: An Interpretive History,Twayne 1991
  25. ^ “Shut the gate to the Hindoo invasion”, San Francisco examiner, June 6, 1910
  26. ^ Closed Borders and Mass Deportations: The Lessons of the Barred Zone Act by Alicia J. Campi
  27. ^ Joshi, Khyati, The Racialization of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism in the United States,Equity & Excellence in Education, Volume 39, Number 3, August 2006, pp. 211-226(16)
  28. ^ CHRISTIAN PAT ROBERTSON DENOUNCES HINDUISM AS “DEMONIC”
  29. ^ “Using TV, Christian Pat Robertson Denounces Hinduism as “Demonic””. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5kmoc6zLH.
  30. ^ Not to be outdone by Robertson, Mohler claimed that Buddhism, Hinduism, and Marxism are “demonstration[s] of satanic power”,Media Matters
  31. ^ a b US radio host apologises over anti-Hindu remarks, rediff.com
  32. ^ a b Denver Post / Author “regrets” for the “Racially Hateful” article, Indiacause.com
  33. ^ Panel promotes understanding
  34. ^ HAF Protests Defamation of Hinduism in San Francisco Chronicle, Hindu American Foundation
  35. ^ HAF Responds to Hinduphobic Article in LA Times, Hindu American Foundation
  36. ^ “Senate Prayer Led by Hindu Elicits Protest”. The Washington Post. 2007-07-13. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/12/AR2007071202007.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
  37. ^ a b c d [2]
  38. ^ “A Hindu Prayer in the Senate Meets Protest”. The New York Times. 2007-07-13. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/13/washington/13brfs-AHINDUPRAYER_BRF.html?ex=1341979200&en=851dbe33e5130b8d&ei=5124&partner=digg&exprod=digg. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  39. ^ A link to YouTube video at YouTube
  40. ^ [3]
  41. ^ [4]
  42. ^ Taliban to mark Afghan Hindus,CNN
  43. ^ a b US Lawmakers Condemn Taliban Treatment Of Hindus,CNSnews.com
  44. ^ Taliban: Hindus Must Wear Identity Labels,People’s Daily
  45. ^ Why are the Jews ‘kanjoos’? —Khaled Ahmed’s Review of the Urdu press,Daily times (Pakistan)
  46. ^ Why democracy didn’t take roots in Pakistan?, Kashmir Herald
  47. ^ Military drops leaflets in Waziristan, jang.com.pk
  48. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2006 Published by the US Department of State
  49. ^ Pakistan
  50. ^ Abuse of History in Pakistan: Bangladesh to Kargil, by Dr. Yvette C Rosser
  51. ^ Lehmann, F., 1968, Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, pp. 644-645
  52. ^ Calkins, P. B. Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, pp. 643-644, 1968
  53. ^ Ahmed, A., Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, pp. 645-647, 1968
  54. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2004″ Published by the US Department of State
  55. ^ Print Article – Wanted: Some Hindu spine
  56. ^ A Bleak Future for Bangladesh Hindu’s, hinduismtoday.com
  57. ^ Amnesty International Report
  58. ^ Security fears for Hindu festival, BBC
  59. ^ Dalit Voice, 16 January 1993
  60. ^ South African Muslims reject anti-Hindu DVD,India Enews
  61. ^ U.S. Racial Attacks Evoke Self-Scrutiny, hinduismtoday.com
  62. ^ Hindu American Foundation Comments on Hate Crime Statistics Act Report
  63. ^ Bajrang Dal launches campaign,The Tribune

See also: Persecution of Hindus

(From Wikipedia reference)

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